Psychology 02.04.08

Questions on final exam for the years of 1995–1999

This list is exactly what the title says. You can not assume that these or similar questions will or will not appear on the exam. Questions can also get outdated due to different editions of the textbook, new teachers or due to other reasons.

Notice that we have only had English versions of the exam for some years. Hence, the Icelandic version of the list has a greater selection of exam questions.

  1. Describe hypnosis. Detail among other things what the hypnotic state involves and how it affects recall from memory.
  2. What is punishment according to behavior theory, how should it be performed to get maximum efficacy and what are the problems that may accompany it according to the text?
  3. Þóra Miller, the English teacher, was very upset when Sveinn knocked down the yucca during the free quarter. Sveinn was thirteen years old, difficult and troublesome. A week later Jóhann, the principal, looked at the matter. He was really surprised to discover that Þóra, Sveinn and the other pupils did not agree on some fundamental facts of the matter. Explain this situation by detailing what affects recall of such information from memory.
  4. Describe heuristics, describe fully two examples of their application and specify clearly how they facilitate decisions while leading at the same time to inferential biases.
  5. Describe theories of cognitive dissonance and their relationship with motivation. Detail, among other things, how dissonance affects motivation and under which circumstances its effect is maximal.
  6. Describe and explain with examples different forms of validity and discuss the connection between reliability and validity.
  7. Discuss three different child rearing methods and the advantages and disadvantages of each of them for the children.
  8. Explain with examples four psychological aspects that affect how people respond to stressors and disease develops.
  9. Account for all the main forms of anxiety disorders and their symptoms.
  10. Describe the process of psychoanalysis (psychodynamic therapy), which methods are used for which purposes. Which are the main disadvantages of that kind of therapy according to the textbook?
  11. Marketing executive of an investment company wants to know whether people will invest more if they receive greater and more detailed information. Delineate in some detail both a correlational and an experimental study to assess this. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each research design? Which one would more clearly inform us on the cause and effect relationships and why?
  12. Typically when Stephen meets medical personnel he is quiet, stiff and clumsy and speaks with abnormally soft voice. Explain this conditioned fear with the concepts of behavioral theory (learning) and describe in some detail how one might resolve this problem with the methods of behavioral theory.
  13. Describe heuristics in some detail, delineating the advantages and possible disadvantages. Describe detailed examples of business and management decisions that explain the advantages of heuristics as well as being examples of at least four different types of judgmental biases that follow from using heuristics.
  14. Joanne conceives of physical therapists as one kind of massagers. Every time a relative or a friend comes from a physical therapy Joanne questions him or her. The result is a strengthening of her belief. Explain this by detailing the advantages and disadvantages of heuristics and describe closely the heuristic and judgmental (cognitive) bias that Joanne's actions involve.
  15. Describe the main theories of forgetting. Delineate among other things how forgetting occurs and give an example of forgetting in accordance with each theory.
  16. Describe different theoretical ideas about the purpose and origin of dreams. Be careful to mention the main arguments pro and con each theory.
  17. Describe hypnosis in some detail and the main theoretical ideas about the state of consciousness of the hypnotized. What are the arguments pro and con for special skills or powers obtained during the hypnotic state and not present in ordinary state of wakefulness.
  18. John and Patricia landed together a huge and profitable deal with a governmental agency in the capital. Patricia was overjoyed while John was somewhat depressed. Delineate Weiner’s theory of the relationship between attributional style and emotions and describe in some detail how it would explain those very different reactions.
  19. Compare and contrast how a behavioral therapist and psychoanalyst would help people who suffer from anxiety disorder (for example, generalized anxiety disorder).
  20. Discuss gender development (gender socialization, sex-typing). Include in your discussion what factors are considered influential in gender development. What do you believe is the most likely explanation of gender development and why?
  21. Explain what these constructs refer to: Locus of control and self-efficacy. How could these constructs be helpful for a practicing physical therapist? Explain using examples.
  22. Compare and contrast the disease and the "life-process" model for addiction. Discuss the pros and cons of those two different conceptualizations. Which model do you think might be more successful when treating addiction?
  23. Discuss four main approaches people use when copying with stress. Describe the pros and cons of each.
  24. Explain, using examples, psychological/individual aspects that influence how people react to stressors.
  25. Discuss three different kinds of child-rearing practices. What are the pros and cons of these different practices and describe how they influence the children.
  26. Compare how Cognitive Therapy and Client-Centered Humanistic Therapy deal with the problems of an individual that is suffering from depression.
  27. Let us say that a study of 20000 Icelandic women shows that those who regularly consume Icelandic mountain plants (fjallagrös) have fewer problems related to the muscular-skeletal system than those who do not.
  28. What are the problems associated with interpreting this as a positive influence of mountain plants (fjallagrös) on the muscular-skeletal system (both generally and as it relates to this particular study)?

    Give carefully delineated examples of how one could strengthen this interpretation of this correlational study as well as well as examples of other research designs that might give additional information.

  29. "I don't know why I did it but it turned out to be a sensible decision." Discuss this as an example of autonomic and subconscious cognitive processes. Discuss among other things their existence, benefits and disadvantages for day to day decision making.
  30. Joanne met an old friend of hers for the first time in 10 years. Suddenly she had vivid memories of the concerns that he had discussed with her last time they met but she had "forgotten." Explain how she can remember this so well after all this time. Discuss also the main theories about forgetting and how it occurs according to each one of the theories.